The application of continuous flow micro reactors is based on solving problems that are currently observed in the batch technology being used for the synthesis of chemical products in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The following advantages can be expected when using a continuous flow micro reactor in place of a conventional batch reactor:
- Safe use of more extreme reaction conditions (even for dangerous reactions);
- Increased selectivity of reactions; a reduction in the use of raw materials and energy with reduced waste production;
- Decrease in development time; a shorter experiment time, no need for scale-up;
- Reduction in product lead time; combination of more synthetic steps in a single micro reactor.
|Design and application of a millistructured heat exchanger reactor for an energy-efficient process|
Sebastian Schwolow, Andreas Neumüller, Lahbib Abahmane, Norbert Kockmann, Thorsten Röder | Chemical Engineering and Processing 108 (2016) 109–116
|Anionic Flow Polymerizations Towards Functional Polyphosphoesters in Microreactors: Polymerization and UV-modification|
E. Baeten, S. Vanslambrouck, C. Jerome, P. Lecmte and T. Junkers | Eur. Polym. J., 2016, 80, 208-218
|Chemists Take Control|
K. Roberts, Chemistry & Industry | 2016, 80(6), 30-33
|Clickable Polylactic Acids by Fast Organocatalytic Ring-Opening Polymerization in Continuous Flow|
S. A. van den Berg, H. Zuilhof and T. Wennekes | Macromolecules, 2016, 49, 2054-2062.
|3D printed flow reactors: applications|
DSM | DSM and Chemtrix BV
|Determination of Kinetic Parameters within a Single Nonisothermal On-Flow Experiment by Nanoliter NMR Spectroscopy|
M. Victoria Gomez, Antonio M. Rodriguez, Antonio de la Hoz, Francisco Jimenez-Marquez, Raluca M. Fratila, Peter A. Barneveld, and Aldrik H. Velders | Anal. Chem., 2015, 87 (20), pp 10547–10555
|Doping of Inorganic Materials in Microreactors - Preparation of Zn doped Fe3O4 Nanoparticles|
M. D. Simmons, N. Jones, D. J. Evans, C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. Salamon, M. Escobar Castillo, H. Wende, D. Constantin Lupascu and M G. Francesconi | Lab Chip, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5LC00287G
|Watching Polymers Grow: Real Time Monitoring of Polymerizations via an Online ESI-MS Microreactor Coupling|
J. J. Haven, J. Vandenbergh and T. Junkers | Chem. Commun., 2015, 51, 46111-4614
|The rapid synthesis of oxazolines and their heterogeneous oxidation to oxazoles under flow conditions|
S. Glockner, D. N. Tran, R. J. Ingham, S. Fenner, Z. E. Wilson, C. Battilocchio and S. V. Ley | Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 207-214
|Photo-induced Copper-mediated Polymerization of Methyl Acrylate in Continuous Flow Reactors|
B. Wenn, M. Conradi, A. D. Carreiras, D. M. Haddleton and T. Junkers | Poly. Chem., 2014, 5, 3053-3060
|Polymer end group modifications and polymer conjugations via ‘Click’ chemistry employing microreactor technology|
J. Vandenbergh, T. Tura, E. Baeten and T. Junkers | J. Pol. Sci., Pol. Chem., 2014, 52(9), 1263-1274
|Kinetic and Scale-up Investigation of a Michael Addition in Microreactors|
S. Schwolow, B. Heikenwalder, L. Abahmane, N. Kockmann and T. Roder | Org. Proc. Res. Dev., 2014, 18, 1535-1544
|A facile route to triazolopyrimidines using a [3+2] cycloaddition and continuous flow|
S. Sadler, M. M. Sebeika, N. L. Kern, D. E. Bell, C. A. Laverack, D. J. Wilkins, A. R. Moeller, B. C. Nicolaysen, P. N. Kozlowski, C. Wiles, R. J. Tinder and G. B. Jones | J. Flow. Chem., 2014, 4(3), 140-147
|Continuous Manufacturing – Producing More with Less|
C.Wiles | 2014-6-16
|End to End Chemistry|
A. Thayer | Chemical & Engineering News, 2014, 92(21), 13
|Gas-liquid-liquid three-phase flow pattern and pressure drop in a microfluidic chip: similarities with gas-liquid/liquid-liquid flows|
J. Yue, E. V. Rebrov and J. C. Schouten | Lab Chip, 2014, 14, 1632-1649
|Microfluidic assembly of cationic-b-cyclodextrin:hyaluronic acid-adamantane host:guest pDNA nanoparticles|
A. Kulkarni, R. VarHeul, K. DeFrees, C. J. Collins, R. A. Schuldt, A. Vlahu and D. H. Thompson | Biomat. Sci., 2013, 1, 1029-1033
|Plantrix® Ceramic Flow Reactors for Industrial Continuous Processing|
Dr. F. Meschke | 2013-10-25
|Continuous Process Technology: A Tool for Sustainable Production|
C.Wiles and P. Watts | Green Chem., 2013, DOI: 10.1039/c3gc41797b
|Reactors for Resistance|
C.Wiles | Spec. Chem. Magazine, 2013, 21-22
|Radiochemistry on Chip: Towards Dose-on-demand Synthesis of PET Radiopharmaceuticals|
V. Arima, G. Pascali, O. Lade, H. R. Kretschmer, I. Bernsdorf, V.Hammond, P. Watts, F. de Leonardis, M. D. Tarn, N. Pamme, B. Z. Cvetkovic, P. S. Dittrich, N. Vasovic, R. Duane, A. Jaksic, A. Zacheo, A. Zizzari, L. Marra, E. Perrone, P. A. Salvadori and R. Rinaldi, Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2328-2336. | 2013-10-16
|Fluoroalkynylations of Aryl Halides under Continuous Flow Homogeneous Catalysis|
M. S. Placzek, J. M. Chmielecki, C. Houghton, A. Calder, C. Wiles and G. B. Jones | 2013-09-05
|Fluoroalkynylations of Aryl Halides under Continuous Flow Homogeneous Catalysis|
M. S. Placzek, J. M. Chmielecki, C. Houghton, A. Calder, C. Wiles and G. B. Jones | J. Flow Chem., 2013, 3(2), 46-50
|Clogging/Fouling/Plugging and Precipitation – Techniques for Handling in Continuous Flow Systems|
Dr. C. Wiles | 2013-05-21
|Efficient and Catalyst-free Condensation of Acid Chlorides and Alcohols using Continuous Flow|
F. E. A. Van Waes, J. Drabowic, A. Cukalovic and C. Stevens | Green Chem., 2012, 14, 2776-2779.
|Synthesis of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Micro Reactors|
M. Simmons, C. Wiles, V. Rocher, M. G. Francesconi and P. Watts | J. Flow Chem., 2013, 3, 7-10.
|Precision Synthesis of Acrylate Multiblock Copolymers from Consecutive Microreactor RAFT Polymerisations|
J. Vandenbergh, T. De Moraes Ogawa and T. Junkers | J. Polym. Sci. A, Polym. Chem., 2013, 51, 2366-2374.
|Hasselt University: ‘Thiol-ene Functionalisation of RAFT-derived Poly(n-butyl acrylate) Polymers in a Labtrix® Micro Reactor|
J. Vandenbergh and T. Junkers | 2013-04-08
|Ghent University: Optimisation and Scaling of an Efficient, Catalyst-free Condensation of Acid Chlorides and Alcohols using Continuous Flow|
F. E. A. Van Waes, J. Drabowicz, A. Cukalovic and C. V. Stevens | 2013-2-6
|Continuous Flow Synthesis of Biologically Interesting 2-Aminothiazole Derivatives – mg-Scale Optimisation and kg-Scale Production of N-(Phenylthiazol-2-yl) acetamide|
Dr. C.Wiles | 2013-01-28
|Industrial Study on the Application of Design of Experiment (DoE) for the Optimisation and Scaling of Amidoxime Synthesis under Flow Conditions|
Dr. C. Wiles | 2012-12-5
|Solvent-free, Continuous Flow Synthesis of Nitroesters using Labtrix®-S1 Ultra Flex|
Dr. C.Wiles | 2012-10-30
|The challenges and benefits of flow chemistry to optimize drug development|
C. Wiles et al | Future Med. Chem., 2012, 4(14), 1779-1789
|Bleach Oxidation using Labtrix® Start Flex|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2012-09-27
|From Batch to Flow: Making the Switch|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2012-09-04
|Trifluoroacetic acid mediated synthesis of 2,3,4,9-Tetrahydro-1H-carbazole via an in-situ generated hydrazone|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2012-07-17
|13,000 x Scale-up of 3-Acetylcoumarin - Demonstration of Scalable Flow Synthesis; from R&D to Production without Parameter Re-optimisation|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2012-06-06
|The Scale-up of (Z)-Ethyl-2-cyano-3-phenylacrylate Synthesis-From Labtrix-S1 Parameter Screening to KiloFlow Production|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles, | 2012, 01-25
|Use of a commercially available device for the evaluation of heterogeneous reagents, catalysts and scavengers under continuous flow conditions|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2011, 09-01
|Translation of microwave methodology to continuous flow for the synthesis of diaryl esthers via an SNAr reaction|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles, | 2011, 06-08
|Rapid extraction of kinetic information using micro reactor technology|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles, Dr. Bongkot Ngamsom | 2011, 05-08
|The use of micro reactors for the extraction of kinetic information from synthetic reactions and application to the Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis.|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles, Dr. Bongkot Ngamson, Dr. Charl Stemmet | 2011 01-24
|A safe and efficient method for the preparation of organic azides under continuous flow.|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2011, 01-10
|Biphasic PNA hydrolysis|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles, Dr Bongkot Ngamsom | 2010, 12-13
|Continuous flow synthesis of Î²-Peptides within labtrixÂ® reactors|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles & Dr. Bongkot Ngamsom | 2010, 12-13
|High-throughput synthesis of alkyl amides within labtrix reactors|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles & Dr. Bongkot Ngamsom | 2010, 11-01
|Continuous flow transfer hydrogenations|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles & Dr. Bongkot Ngamsom | 2010,10-20
|Manipulation of Grignard reagents within labtrix reactors|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2010, 20-09
|Knoevenagel condensation |
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2010-08-23
Dr. Charlotte Wiles & Dr. Bongkot Ngamsom | 2010-07-30
|Continuous flow esterifications|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles & Dr. Bongkot Ngamsom | 2010-07-26
|The use of static micro mixers within labtrix® micro reactors|
Dr. Charlotte Wiles | 2010, 06-07
|Scale out of chemical synthesis in flow reactors|
Dr. P.Watts | 2010, 07-01
|The scale-up of chemical sythesis using micro reactors |
C.Wiles and P.Watts | Chemistry Today, 2010, 4-6
|Continues flow organic synthesis: a tool for the modern medicinal chemist|
C. Wiles & P.Watts | Future Medicinal Chemistry, 2009, 1(9), 1593-1612
|The use of micro reactors as tools for the high-throughput synthesis of small organic molecule libraries |
C. Wiles | Speciality Chemicals Magazine, 2009, 29(7), 40-41
|A microreactor for the study of biotransformations by a cross-linked gamma-lactamase enzyme|
A. M. Hickey, B. Ngamsom, C. Wiles, G. M. Greenway, P. Watts and J. A. Littl | Biotechnology J., 2009, 4(4), 510-516.
|The development and evaluation of a continuous flow process for the lipase-mediated oxidation of alkenes|
C. Wiles, M. J. Hammond and P. Watts | Belstein Journal Organic Chemistry, 2009
|Enhanced chemical synthesis in flow reactors|
C.Wiles and P.Watts | Chimica Oggi, 2009, 27, 3, 34-36.
|Evaluation of the heterogeneously catalysed strecker reaction conducted under continuous flow|
C. Wiles and P. Watts | EurJOC, 2008, 5597-5613. DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.200800751.
|Deuterated isotope labelling of phenol derivatives within micro reactors|
J. Hooper, P. Watts and C. Wiles | Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 2008, 5, 595-602. DOI 10.1007/s10404-008-0274-8.
|An integrated microreactor for the multicomponent synthesis of α-aminonitriles|
C. Wiles and P. Watts | Org. Proc. Res. Dev., C. Wiles* and P. Watts, 2008, 12, 1001-1006. DOI: 10.1021/op800025p.
|An efficient, chemoselective technique for the continuous flow synthesis of thioacetals|
C. Wiles, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Tetrahedron Lett., 2007, 48, 7362-7365. DOI: 10.1016/j.tetlet.2007.08.027.
|An expedient, scalable synthesis of the natural product L-anserine|
| Synthesis, 2007, 17, 2608-2610. DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-983826
|A Chemiluminescence nanosensor to monitor lipid peroxidation |
N. Baker, G. M. Greenway, R. A. Wheatley and C. Wiles | Analyst, 2007, 132, 104-106.
|Parallel synthesis in an EOF-based micro reactor|
C. Wiles and P. Watts | Chem. Commun., 2007, 4928-4930. DOI: 10.1039/b712546a.
|Improving chemical synthesis using flow reactors|
C. Wiles and P. Watts | Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, 2007, 2(11), 1487-1503.
|Immobilisation of thermophilic enzymes in miniaturised flow reactors|
A. M. Hickey, L. Marle, T. McCreedy, P. Watts, G. M. Greenway and J. A. Lit |
|An efficient, continuous flow technique for the chemoselective synthesis of thioacetals|
C. Wiles, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Tetrahedron Lett., 2007, 48, 736
|Separation of [18F]fluoride ion from proton-irradiated [18O]water within an EOF-driven micro-reactor|
S. Lu, M. J. Gilde, A. Prak, P. Watts and V. Pike, J. Label |
|The Synthesis of deuterium labelled amides within micro reactors|
J. Hooper and P. Watts, J. Label | Compd. Radiopharm, 2007, 50, 189-196.
|The use of solid-supported reagents for the multi-step synthesis of a combinatorial array of analytically pure α and β-unsaturated compounds in miniaturized flow reactors|
C. Wiles, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Lab Chip, 2007, 7, 322-330.
|Synthesis of analytically pure compounds in flow reactors|
C. Wiles and P. Watts | Chem. Eng. Technol., 2007, 329-333. DOI:10.1002/ceat.200600323
|Micro Reactors: A New Tool for the Synthetic Chemist|
C. Wiles and P. Watts | Org. Biomol. Chem., 2007, 5, 727-732.
|The use of electroosmotic flow as a pumping mechanism for semi-preparative scale continuous flow synthesis|
C. Wiles, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Chem. Commun., 2007, 966-968.
|Recent advances in synthetic micro reaction technology|
C. Wiles and P. Watts | CChem. Commun., 2007 (5), 443-467
|Scaling out of electrolyte free electrosynthesis in a micro-gap flow cell|
P. He, F. Marken, S.J. Haswell and P. Watts | Lab Chip, 2007, 7,
|Electrosynthesis of phenyl-2-propanone derivatives from benzyl bromides and acetic anhydride in an unsupported micro-flow cell electrolysis process|
P. He, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and F. Marken | Green Chem, 2007
|Isotopic labelling in micro reactors|
J. Hooper, P. Watts and C. Wiles | J. Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, 2006, 49, 4, 377-420. (Conference Special Edition (Hinxton)). (pg 417*)
|The use of solid-supported reagents in continuous flow reactors|
C. Wiles*, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | J. Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, 2006, 49, 4, 377-420. (Conference Special Edition (Hinxton)). (pg 419)
|Synthesis and characterisation of immobilised Ruthenium complexes|
G. M. Greenway, A. Greenwood, P. Watts and C. Wiles | J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 2006, (1), 85-87.
|Self-Supported and clean one-step cathodic coupling of activated olefins with benzylbromide derivatives in a micro flow reactor|
P. He, F. Marken, S.J. Haswell and P. Watts | P. He, F. Marken, S.J. Haswell and P. Watts, Angew. Chemie., Int. Ed. Eng.
|Clean and selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols using silica-supported Jones reagent in a pressure-driven flow reactor|
C. Wiles, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Tetrahedron Lett., 2006, 47, 5261-5264.
|Microreactor as tools for chemical research|
X. Zhang, C. Wiles, S. L. Painter, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Chimica Oggi, Chemistry Today, 2006, 24, No. 2, 43-45.
|Flow reactors for organic synthesis|
G. P. Wild, C. Wiles and P. Watts | Letters in Organic Chemistry, 2006, 3, No. 6, 419-425
|Towards paired and coupled electrode reactions for clean organic micro reactor electrosynthesis,|
C. A. Paddon, M. Atobe, T. Fuchigami, P. He, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell | C. A. Paddon, M. Atobe, T. Fuchigami, P. He, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell
|Combinatorial synthesis in micro reactors|
P. Watts | QSAR and Combinatorial Science, 2005, 24, 701-711
|The preparation and reaction of carbanions within micro reactors|
C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 10757.
|Electrolyte free electroorganic synthesis: The cathodic dimerisation of 4-nitrobenzylbromide in a micro-gap flow cell|
P. He, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and F. Marken | Electrochemistry Communications
|Microreactors for drug discovery: the importance of integrating chemical synthesis with real-time analytical detection|
P. Watts | Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2005, 382, 865-867.
|The application of micro reactors for small scale organic synthesis|
P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Chem. Eng. Technol., 2005, 28, 290-301.
|Acid catalysed synthesis and deprotection of dimethyl acetals in a miniaturised electroosmotic flow reactor|
C. Wiles, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 5209-5217
|The application of micro reactors for organic synthesis|
P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Chem. Soc. Rev., 2005, 34, 235-246.
|Exploration of a micro reactor for the synthesis of non carrier added 11C- and 18F-labelled carboxylic esters|
S. Lu, P. Watts, F. T. Chin, J. Hong, J. L. Musachio, E. Briard |
|Continuous flow micro reactors for drug discovery|
P. Watts | Current Opinion in Drug Discovery and Development, 2004, 807.
|Synthesis of 11C- and 18F-labeled carboxylic esters within a hydrodynamically driven micro reactor|
S. Lu, P. Watts, F. T. Chin, J. Hong, J. L. Musachio, E. Briard |
|Solid supported continuous flow synthesis in micro reactors using electroosmotic flow|
N. Nikbin and P. Watts | OPRD, 2004, 8, 942-944.
|Combinatorial synthesis in micro reactors|
P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening, 2004&
|An investigation into the use of silica supported bases within EOF based flow reactors|
C. Wiles, P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Tetrahedron, 2004, 60, 8421.
|Chemical Synthesis in micro reactors|
P. Watts | Ingenieur Technik, 2004, 76, 555-559
|Electrochemical effects related to synthesis in micro reactors operating under electrokinetic flow|
P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Chemical Engineering Journal, 2004
|Stereoselective alkylation of an Evans auxiliary derivative within a pressure driven micro reactor|
C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Lab Chip, 2004, 4, 171.
|Benchmarking micro reactor applications|
H. Pennemann, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell, V. Hessel and H. Lowe | OPRD, 2004
|Organic synthesis in micro reactors|
X. Feng, S. J. Haswell and P. Watts | Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 2004
|The application of microreactor technology for the synthesis of 1,2-azoles|
C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Org. Process Rev. Dev., 2004, 8, 28.
|Green Chemistry: Synthesis in Micro Reactors|
P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Green Chemistry, 2003, 5, 240-249.
|Microfluidic combinatorial chemistry|
P. Watts and S. J. Haswell, | Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 2003, 7, 38
|Continuous flow reactors for drug discovery|
P. Watts and S. J. Haswell | Drug Discovery Today, 2003, 8, 586-593.
|Solution phase synthesis of esters within a micro reactor|
C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Tetrahedron, 2003, 59, 10173.
|On-chip separation of peptides prepared within a micro reactor|
V. George, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar |
|Investigation of racemisation in peptide synthesis within a micro reactor|
P. Watts, C. Wiles, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Lab Chip, 2002, 2, 141.
|Solution phase synthesis of β-peptides using micro reactors,|
P. Watts, C. Wiles, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Tetrahedron, 2002, 58, 5427.
|Micro reactors: principles and applications in organic synthesis|
P. D. I. Fletcher, S. J. Haswell, E. Pombo-Villar, B. H. Warrington, P. Watts |
|1,4-Addition of enolates to α and β-unsaturated ketones within a micro reactor|
C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Lab Chip, 2002, 2, 62.
|The regioselective preparation of 1,3-diketones in a micro reactor|
C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 2002, 1034.
|The aldol reaction of silyl enol ethers within a micro reactor|
C. Wiles, P. Watts, S. J. Haswell and E. Pombo-Villar | Lab Chip, 2001, 1, 100.
|The synthesis of peptides in micro reactors|
P. Watts, C. Wiles, S. J. Haswell, E. Pombo-Villar and P. Styring | J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 2001, 990.
|The application of micro reactors to synthetic chemistry|
S. J. Haswell, R. J. Middleton, B. O'Sullivan, V. Skelton, P. Watts |